Automating global logistics starts with digital documents

Like with most business ecosystems, the functioning of global trade relies on efficient exchanges of information, especially of documents. While industries and ecosystems around the world are now digitizing associated processes and automating the bottlenecks, the business ecosystem of global shipping has been slower to realize innovation and digitization.

Supply chain processes require close coordination among many parties and a major choke point in this process is the requesting and finalizing of bills of lading with ocean carriers. There are many situations which cause even the most straight-forward flows to be disrupted and require multiple versions of documents to be created, reviewed and exchanged until final approval and the final bill of lading submission.

TradeLens Workflows utilize blockchain smart contracts to automate and digitize multi-party interactions — this helps drive efficiencies across supply chains. Let’s take a look at each major element to understand what digitizing document workflows looks like for the shipping industry.

Blockchain as the foundation

The foundation of TradeLens Workflows is a permissioned blockchain which guarantees the immutability and traceability of shipping documents and their processes on the platform. This is a very important building block in providing the trust needed to scale.

The permissioned blockchain transforms some of the basic concepts around business networks — contracts, ledgers, transactions, the flow of assets and identity of participants — and introduces the following:

  • Consensus. Transactions in a blockchain network are first proposed, then consented to by the group, and only then committed to the ledger.
  • Shared ledger. Trust anchors have an exact copy of the ledger.
  • Immutability. When a block is committed it is cryptographically secured with previous blocks in the ledger forming an audit log that becomes the foundation of trust.
  • Accountability: All participants are digitally identifiable, and each blockchain transaction is signed with a permissioned user digital certificate.

Document sharing

TradeLens Document sharing provides a framework for organizing and sharing trade documents related to a host of information such as shipments, consignments and transport equipment. This is all done through permissioned access according to the role of different players and includes security, version control and privacy provisions.

Each trade document is stored on a single stack within the blockchain network, under the control of the operator and accessible only to permissioned parties within a channel. Users can upload, download, view and edit documents as allowed by their permissions and access control on that specific type of document for the trade object in question.

It is important to note, only the hash of a given document is stored on the ledger. The document itself is stored securely where access is granted according to the TradeLens Data Sharing Specification. Each time a document is edited or uploaded, a new version is created and added to the document store. Every version can be verified against a hash of its original submitted content in the ledger.

Blockchain ensures the immutability and auditability of all these documents, promoting trust and alignment across trading partners.

Beyond document sharing

The TradeLens Workflow feature takes thedocument sharing capability one step further. It provides a way to interpret structured documents and take actions on them according to well-defined workflows. In other words, by understanding the purpose and contents of documents we can automate certain actions and notifications in the shipment flow.

As documents are submitted through the TradeLens API or UI, they are interpreted by looking at specific attributes that determine which trade object the document is applicable to, and which actions to perform. The actions are checked against defined rules and only specific actions by specific actors are accepted.

When all requirements are fulfilled, the document is saved and the appropriate action gets recorded as a transaction on the blockchain. Smart contracts ensure the state and progression of a TradeLens Workflow — what can be done at each step, and by which organization or actor.

Our workflows also update generated events to help notify subscribers (members of the supply chain) of the actions and results.

An example of TradeLens Workflow: SI-BL Flow 

Let’s talk about a specific TradeLens Workflow — the SI-BL. This variation simplifies the process of sending a shipping instruction (SI) to the ocean carrier and receiving back a verified bill of lading (BL). The TradeLens SI-BL Workflow removes the need to manually edit, amend and transfer these critical documents, accelerating end-to-end flow to achieve a final bill of lading.

When a shipper (or their representative) submits a SI to the TradeLens Platform, it is analyzed by its attributes to determine which consignment it’s related to and which ocean carrier should be notified. Once the carrier has it, a draft BL is submitted back to the platform, the shipper can review and make amendments and share back to the carrier and so on, until a final BL is agreed upon. Because this is an automated process between systems at the shipper and carrier, manual tasks are eliminated along with their inherent delays.

There are many other variations of this flow, but the benefits come from the visibility and increased speed in processing these transactions. Also helpful for shippers, this offers a single mechanism and process for interacting with different ocean carriers with an immutable, shared audit trail for all draft BL revisions and approvals — all recorded on the blockchain ledger.

A digital ecosystem to meet old and new challenges

TradeLens Workflows help connect your ecosystem, drive information sharing and foster collaboration and trust by enabling the digitization and automation of how you work with others.

Source: Article by Ana Biazetti, TradeLens, May 22, 2020

ZIM Successfully Pilots First Paperless Blockchain Bill of Lading

ZIM lines

ZIM, an Israeli container shipping company, has successfully completed a blockchain document exchange pilot for paperless bills of lading using blockchain-based software from Wave to send a document that acknowledged receipt of cargo for shipment.

Wave connects all members of the supply chain to a decentralized network and allows them a direct exchange of files.

During the trial, all participants issued, transferred and received original electronic documents using Wave’s application, which manages ownership of documents on the blockchain to eliminate disputes, forgeries and unnecessary risks.

The containers, shipped by Sparx Logistics from China to Canada, were delivered to the consignees “without a hitch”, reported ZIM in an announcement about its breakthrough.

ZIM said that it is “convinced” that the blockchain technology and the Wave application is “the solution that will drive the trade to the digital era”.

The new blockchain-based system developed by Wave uses distributed ledger technology to ensure that all parties can issue, transfer, endorse and manage shipping and trade related documents through a secure decentralized network.

Wave’s application is free for shippers, Importers and Traders and requires no IT or operational changes.

Source: Port Technology (20 Nov, 2017 )

Mandatory reporting of Cargo Carrier Code

On Sunday, 31 July 2011, SARS will implement a stepping stone towards full cargo/declaration matching and acquittal. All goods declarations must reflect a valid cargo carrier code as part of the house waybill number data field.  The requirement was implemented successfully in the sea cargo environment some years ago with the launch of the old Manifest Acquittal System; the challenge now lies largely within the air cargo community.

The ‘House Waybill” data field comprises two parts – The first part must reflect the Cargo Carrier Code (Eight-digit Alpha Numeric Code). This is the code assigned by the Automated Cargo Management (ACM) system to the entity who issued the House Bill of Lading e.g. the Groupage Operator or his appointed agent in the Republic. The second part must reflect the actual number of the transport document.

By way of faciliatory gesture to legitimate importers who may be blissfully unaware of the non-compliance of their forwarding agent / carrier, SARS will allow the insertion of a specific code “ZZZ99999” for non-compliant cargo reporters. This code must only be used in the event the cargo reporter is not registered with SARS for submission of cargo reports to ACM. The facility is a temporary measure which will be withdrawn after a short period.

In the event a declarant inserts the aforementioned code, the associated declaration will be selected by the customs system for scrutiny by a customs official. In order to remedy any delay to an otherwise legitimate import, the unregistered cargo reporter must immediately identify themselves to SARS by way of disclosing their company name and contact details to enable SARS to expedite registration of the entity for ACM compliance. The sooner this is accomplished the quicker the importer can obtain release if there is no further outstanding impediment.

Subsequent registration of the non-compliant carrier could also result in the imposition of a penalty against the entity concerned. Therefore as of 31 July 2011, declarants will need to be more vigilant concerning the status/standing of their local forwarding agent in regard to compliance with SARS reporting requirements. Once the temporary dispensation above is withdrawn, the effect of a customs intervention will directly impact on the release of an importer’s goods.

Freight forwarders, Customs Brokers and Service Providers are urged to make their clients and business partners aware of the new developments to mitigate disappointment.  For more information refer to the SARS Modernisation webpage.